Did you know there is a mud volcano in India? If not, use the information in this article as a token to enlighten yourself about the fascinating volcanoes in India!
What is Mud Volcano?
A mud volcano, also known as a mud dome, is a volcano created by liquids and gases in the earth’s interior. Mud volcanoes can develop in a variety of methods. A mud volcano has significantly lower temperatures than a normal volcano. Some mud volcanoes form when vast gas volumes and tiny amounts of water react chemically with the surrounding rocks to generate boiling mud. The paint pot (a basin of boiling mud that erodes chunks of the surrounding rock) and the porridge pot are two variations (an inlet of boiling mud with minerals from the surrounding rocks tinting it yellow, green, or blue).
Mud volcanoes are frequently found in oil fields and geological subduction zones. They are related to orogenic belts, which are known for erupting hydrocarbon gases. They’re also often associated with lava volcanoes. On the other hand, Mud volcanoes spit forth gases like methane and carbon dioxide instead of magma. More than 10,000 mud volcanoes can exist on continental slopes and abyssal plains.
Mud volcanoes have a variety of characteristics. The gryphon, a steep, short cone that spews mud, is one of these characteristics. The mud cone, a towering cone that produces dirt and small rock fragments, is another characteristic. The Salse, the scoria cone forms, after the mud, deposits are heated. Scoria is a water pool that releases gases. There are numerous additional characteristics of mud volcanoes, but these are the most prominent. The majority of the material spewed out by mud volcanoes occurs during volcanic eruptions.
Mud Volcano in India
The convergence of the Indian plate and the Burmese microplate causes extensive mud volcanism on the Andaman collecting prism. Which occurs above a complex network of faults. The mud matrix erupted by these mud volcanoes forms from an assemblage of smectite–illite–kaolinite–chlorite–plagioclase–quartz–calcite. Obtained from sediments and altered oceanic crust, and it comes from a deep-burial historical environment.
The patterns of 13C distributions indicate the thermogenic origin of these mud volcanoes for methane (>42), ethane (>27), and CO2 (b3) gases released, with TOC and N of accompanying mud suggesting marine organic matter as the source.
Mud water is significantly fresher (Cl = 45 to 135 mM) than saltwater. Its isotopic compositions of 18O (0.2 to 2.6) and D (24 to 14) are well below the global meteoric water line. The mud water combines sediment pore water (ancient saltwater) and water released through dehydration of clay minerals, based on their trace element concentration and stable isotopic compositions.
The 87Sr/86Sr of mud water (0.7071) verifies the conclusion mentioned above and highlights the importance of changing oceanic crust in influencing water chemistry. The formation temperatures of mud ejecta, as determined by mineralogical (smectite/illite), chemical (K+/Na+), and isotopic (D/18O) geothermometers. are between 50 and 120 degrees Celsius, corresponding to a depth zone of 2 to 6 kilometers inside the Andaman forearc. The mud volcano ejecta intends to arise from the subducting Indian plate’s sediments and changed oceanic crust near the plate boundary décollement zone.
Baratang Mud Volcano
The Baratang island is part of the Great Andaman Chain, and with a surface area of 242.6 square kilometers (93.7 square miles), it is one of the largest of the group’s principal islands. The Great Andaman Chain is a tightly packed archipelago in the Bay of Bengal, next to the Andaman Sea.
The only known mud volcanoes in India are near Baratang. These mud volcanoes have erupted infrequently in the past. The most recent eruption occurred in 2005. Which links to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The most recent significant eruption was on February 18, 2003. Locals refer to this mud volcano as “jalki”
How To Reach?
From Port Blair
Mud volcanoes may be seen on the island of Baratang, which is roughly 90 kilometers from Port Blair. You may reach mud Volcanoes from Port Blair in many ways.
You may take a bus from STS Bus Terminal in Aberdeen Bazaar to your destination, which will take around two and a half hours. The first part of the voyage is from Port Blair to Jirkatang, which is 40 kilometers long, and the second half is from Jirkatang to Baratang, which is 49 kilometers long.
You can also go with Nilambur Jetty services to go to Mud Volcanoes, and the total journey takes about 15 minutes. in addition to government buses and ferries, Private buses and boat services are also available, which are usually more costly.
From Havelock Island
Mud Volcanoes are about 170 kilometers away from Havelock Island, and there is no direct service to the volcanoes. There are daily ferries to Port Blair, from whence you may easily catch a boat to Baratang. It will take 3 hours to drive from Havelock to Port Blair, and as ferry services to Bartang are only accessible until 1 pm, thus leaving Havelock early is advisable. You will waste one night in Port Blair for the night if you do not do so.
Some Exciting Visits Near Mud Volcano in India
1. Chidiya Tapu
On this lonely island, you may see a wide variety of native and migratory birds, experience unparalleled isolation and quiet, and explore the beautiful green woodlands. Relax on the beach and watch emerald doves soar over the sky.
2. Limestone Caves
Limestone Caves, just a few kilometers from Mud Volcanoes, are a fascinating sight to behold. The fascinating flower designs are scattered throughout the walls and ceilings, providing the space with a stunning appeal.
3. Cellular Jail
A must-see location in Andaman not just because of its historical significance in India’s battle for freedom but also because of its tranquil surroundings.
Best Time to Visit
The ideal time to see mud volcanoes is during the winter season, which runs from November to February. Summers on the island are too hot for sightseeing, and the oppressive heat will restrict your exploration. During the monsoon season, bad weather may cause airline cancellations, leaving you stuck.
What You Should Know
Before you travel to Mud Volcano in India, get permission to visit Baratang Island. You should also bring any necessary medications with you because the medical facilities in Baratang are not up to the mark. The Jarawa Tribe lives on the island, and the government bans visitors from engaging with or photographing the tribesmen.